Vol. 6 No. 2 (2023): July-December [Edit closure: 31/07/2023]
Suggested quote (APA, seventh edition)
Mendoza Lacma, J. D., Uría Sánchez, M. B., Colca García, H. L., & García Gómez, E. P.(2023). Influence of education in the knowledge society on university higher education. Delectus, 6(2),65-76. https://doi.org/10.36996/delectus.v6i2.212
Faculty of Education, Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal, Perú
Faculty of Education, Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal, Perú
Faculty of Education, Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal, Perú
The main objective of this study is to determine the relationship between education and the knowledge society, in higher education-2022, in university higher education-2022. It is a correlational work, in which, to collect data, two survey-type instruments were used, these instruments passed the validity and reliability filters. The data obtained reveal that the Spearman's Rho correlation coefficient = 0.856, shows a very high positive correlation between the variables analyzed, and with a p ˂ 0.01, that is, 0.000 ˂ 0.01*, so it is concluded that education has a statistically significant relationship with the knowledge society in university higher education -2022.Keywords: Knowledge society; new technologies; education; higher education.
Despite the exponential growth in technological development, the world has not yet succeeded in designing strategies to promote inner and spiritual development. Due importance has not been given to the formation and strengthening of fundamental values that foster effective and transformative behavior in individuals. Likewise, in general, education has not capitalized on significant changes in our society and, as a result, the knowledge society is seeking to establish a structure that can address the various problems affecting human development worldwide. Within this framework, the education system and the knowledge-based society find themselves in the midst of a reality defined by conflicting dualities. At one extreme, there are the challenges of managing globalization, the digital era, competition and transformation. At the other, there are the difficulties of dealing with inequality, inequity and complexity. This circumstance generates a contrast between the accumulation of knowledge and wisdom, and between technological progress and social progress. Despite progress, human beings still face the inability to solve problems such as poverty, marginalization, malnutrition, child deaths and environmental degradation.
In addition, it is necessary for both teachers and students to use digital technology effectively (UNESCO, 2008). Consequently, educational standards must take into account the type of knowledge and skills that promote in students the development and strengthening of competencies in line with the new times and emerging needs, especially those related to knowledge management, which are reinforced by technology (INTEF, 2017). To achieve this, it is important to have a deep knowledge of the historical evolution of humanity, of societies and their diverse cultures, as well as the discovery of the different knowledge that emerged at different times and places, which have contributed to human development. Also, it is necessary to understand how knowledge used to be monopolized by an elite that transmitted it only to their descendants for purposes of supremacy and exclusion towards the rest of the inhabitants; assigning them utilitarian and necessary tasks for society, but less valued and meaningful.
According to Rodriguez (2018), in the last two decades, there have been changes of great importance in the social, economic, scientific and technological fields, which has led to a new philosophical vision in the context of a globalized society and a knowledge society. In this sense, society becomes a subject of constant concern, analysis and proposals, with the aim of achieving democratic and economically developed societies, as this has a direct impact on the maintenance of social welfare. On the one hand, education plays a fundamental role in fostering social cohesion, addressing factors such as economics, ethnicity, gender, internal and external migration, and interculturality, among others, that influence societies. To achieve this, the relevant institutions and agencies must make efforts to achieve levels of social integration that go beyond welfare actions. This implies promoting long-term sustainable economic investment in order to train human resources capable of guaranteeing the desired levels of social development. In this way, citizens can gradually develop attitudes that facilitate mutual acceptance and respect, with the objective of guaranteeing governance and social coexistence. Thus, it will be possible to live, learn and work successfully in an increasingly complex, information-rich and knowledge-based society.
In Latin America, the problem is of particular concern. The region's developing countries lack an ingrained culture of research and innovation, resulting in an education system that is characterized as pragmatic and fails to promote the development of knowledge in society. Underdeveloped countries such as Peru have pinned their hopes on the sustainable development model and the knowledge economy as ways to overcome various crises, be they economic, financial or even health-related. Therefore, in the current context, the aim is to achieve sustainable human development based on the new economy.
Freirian thought emphasizes the importance of the educational process as an act of knowledge and, in turn, as a political act. Paulo Freire considers that education has as its main objective the transformation of both the individual and his or her social environment. For him, knowledge implies struggle, since knowledge entails a process of transformation and, therefore, opens spaces for struggle. The pedagogical praxis developed by Freire reflects this conception of the transforming capacity of the human being. To fully understand Freire's thought, it is essential to contextualize it in its historical dimension (Freire, 2008, p.7). Within the framework of the knowledge society, Freire's ideas find resonance in highlighting the importance of education as a means to empower people, encourage citizen participation and promote social transformation through access to and critical use of knowledge.
Within higher education in knowledge societies, while schools play an important role in the transmission and formation of individuals at an early stage, they are only a relatively superficial medium. It is necessary to recognize the need for more fundamental and persistent modes of mentoring that transcend school institutions and place educational methods in their true place, embracing a holistic and continuous approach to learning that extends beyond the university classroom (Dewey, 1998); even though this learning process may vary or be affected by the predominant learning styles of the student.
Paur et al. (2006) analyze the impact of ICTs on society and education, highlighting the importance of being critical in the face of information overload. In this sense, education is crucial to advance towards a just and democratic knowledge society, where lifelong learning and cognitive independence are central objectives. Therefore, the education system and universities must adapt to meet the demand for continuing education.
In their study, Terrazas & Silva (2013) highlight the condition of contemporary society and the state of scientific knowledge and global research, assessing the state of knowledge in the educational environment and highlighting both achievements and clear failures in this area. Despite the advancement of knowledge, the persistent inability to solve complex and deep-rooted problems of humanity is recognized. The study also proposes infopedagogy as an integrative resource for the intensive use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in education. From this reflective analysis, a training proposal based on seven pillars is synthesized, which seeks to promote competencies, principles, attitudes and values in the integral development of individuals in the context of modern education. However, education per se, despite enormous changes and strategic efforts, has not been able to firmly establish itself or fully integrate itself into this knowledge-based society, in its attempt to articulate definitive solutions to the chronic problems of humanity.
The study by Torres et al. (2021) highlights the innovative character and the objective of meeting the needs of the globalized society, as well as the complicated task of implementing diverse strategies to solve every day and work-related dilemmas. Likewise, it stresses the need to adapt to the demands of the knowledge society outlined by UNESCO (2005). This work emphasizes the imperative of preserving an integral approach in education, without ignoring the intricate nature of the human being and its influence on scientific research.
Terrazas & Silva (2013) stress the need to transcend reductionism, which holds that only scientific knowledge possesses validity, a critical stance in the environment of knowledge-based societies. This point of view suggests that an incorrect use of science can dehumanize it. Faced with this reality, and recognizing the fundamental importance of science and research in the knowledge society, it cannot be underestimated that science should have a transforming value for human beings, as long as it pursues the ultimate purpose of science, which is to aspire to wisdom, that is, to use knowledge to make decisions that benefit humanity. However, this will not be feasible if the human being does not recognize that the great existential emptiness, he experiences is linked to his lack of attention to the development of a spiritual dimension that connects him with his inner state and with God (p.7).
In the context of knowledge societies, Pérez Zuñiga et al. (2018) argue that communicative action and mass media play a crucial role as powerful tools. These discourses, generated, disseminated, debated and internalized in human action, significantly influence local-global communication networks and our interactions in and through them. As a consequence, power relations today are largely defined by our participation in these communicative environments. However, more recent research warns of the dangers of the technological reductionisms and determinisms that underlie this approach, as they can lead to a form of technological totalitarianism. Moreover, they point out the risk of certain technologies being used as means of control both in the face-to-face and virtual realms (Pérez Zuñiga et al., 2018). In summary, in the context of knowledge societies, the determining influence of communicative action and mass media in the configuration of power relations is recognized, but the need to critically address the reductionist and deterministic aspects associated with their use is also raised.
It is worth recalling that the four pillars of education proposed by UNESCO constitute a solid basis for the integral formation of individuals in the 21st century. "Learning to know" implies developing critical and analytical skills to understand the world and its complexities. "Learning to do" involves not only acquiring practical skills, but also fostering creativity, critical thinking and problem solving. "Learning to live together" seeks to promote mutual understanding, tolerance and respect for cultural diversity. Finally, "learning to be" seeks to develop the full personality of each individual, promoting autonomy, ethics and fundamental values. These interconnected and complementary pillars offer a holistic approach to education to form competent individuals who are aware of their environment. In a constantly changing world, education plays a fundamental role in human transformation and in building a society that is open, inclusive and prepared for today's challenges (Delors, 2013; Chavero, 2020). From this perspective, education has the potential to polish and refine individuals as thinking beings, preparing them for the 21st century society, which faces rapid technological changes and floods of information (Castells, 2002; De las Salas et al., 2014; Narro, 2014; Rivera García et al., 2017).
Unesco's 2005 Global Report, "Towards Knowledge Societies," notes that innovative information and communication technologies have set the stage for the birth of knowledge societies. These technologies have become tools that serve a greater and desired purpose, which is the ability to achieve development for all, especially for developing nations. In referring to the information society, the report invites us to focus our attention on new forms of communication. In this regard, the Internet is an example of the convergence of information, communication and computing technologies. This leads us to reflect on the fact that those who have joined these technologies later, i.e. adults, have had more difficulty adapting to them. In contrast, most young people today are not surprised by the Internet, as they have grown up with it over the last decade. They use chat rooms, e-mail and web browsing programs with an almost innate ability (Delarbre, 2002).
Due to the concern of teachers to incorporate Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), the need to implement a "compensatory digital re-literacy" for teachers has emerged (Reyes et al., 2021; López Iglesias et al., 2021). Today, there is a tendency to amalgamate teacher training in three areas: disciplinary knowledge, pedagogical knowledge and technological understanding, following the TPACK (Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge) model proposed by Koehler & Mishra (2008). Parallel to this line of study, it is equally important to understand students' preferences regarding ICT. In particular, the valuation and use of educational applications of various technological tools by students of Teacher Training Degrees is evaluated. This digital divide is no longer limited only to access, but to the degree of digital inclusion, where a less receptive attitude of women in terms of skills and autonomy in the use of ICTs is highlighted.
Understanding that the knowledge society is generated from exchange, accumulation, management and the way in which knowledge is produced, it is assumed that it is essential to train teachers focusing on the knowledge of ICT applied to learning and knowledge. In addition, teachers require the necessary pedagogical information to know how to use them, so as to generate renewed methodologies of a participatory and inclusive nature that invite research and reflection, while providing a space that fosters interest and knowledge management. This will make it possible to transform knowledge into knowledge and thus achieve solutions to everyday problems (Pérez-Zúñiga et al., 2018). If technologies are used with a specific objective, they will allow the achievement of meaningful learning. Therefore, these tools should be implemented comprehensively as part of the curriculum. The implementation of CTs should be carried out with the objective of generating and managing knowledge in a critical manner, and education should adapt and innovate its teaching-learning process according to the new social demands.
In short, the knowledge society is based on information management and access to knowledge. It is essential that knowledge be a general good and accessible to all, and education plays a fundamental role in its dissemination. Organizations seek competitive advantages through the development of knowledge and information, and information and communication technologies are key tools in this context.
Likewise, technologies have transformed society in all areas, including education. New technologies offer multiple possibilities for learning, such as accessibility, interactivity and flexibility. It is necessary to include information and communication technologies (ICTs) in teaching, especially in higher education, to improve students' learning processes and develop digital competencies. Teacher training in the use of ICTs and their integration into the curriculum are key aspects to take advantage of their educational potential.
This research work seeks to establish the relationship between education in the knowledge society, university higher education-2022, and then arrive at alternative solutions that overcome the points presented in the problem statement. Likewise, it will lead to seek the relevance of education as the engine to transform societies making them more just, free, democratic, supportive, equitable, ethical and moral. Likewise, research through the production of knowledge and development of technologies to meet the needs of society is an essential and mandatory function of the university. Furthermore, the knowledge society implies, in the first instance, the strengthening of social learning procedures is presented as a tactic to ensure social assimilation and its transformation into tangible benefits and, in the second instance, the transformation of knowledge into a critical factor with respect to productive and social development.
This research seeks to understand the transformative role of education as an engine to create more just, free, democratic, supportive, equitable, ethical and moral societies. It is considered fundamental that education contributes to social cohesion through the development of general competencies in university students, by means of curricular design that facilitates the transformation of previous knowledge into meaningful knowledge. Therefore, education plays a relevant role in the generation, management and dissemination of knowledge, especially at the university level.
Similarly, the use of new technologies also has a significant impact on higher education, influencing the understanding of knowledge, creativity, innovation and research. These changes transform the university classroom environment and support cognitive development. So, it is important to highlight the revaluation of education in response to changes in today's society and the incorporation of new technologies as didactic and research tools; as well as the adaptation of curricular designs in higher education. This strengthens the pillars of education and its relevance in the current context.
Finally, it is justified on the grounds that one of the fundamental purposes of the university is to disseminate universal knowledge for the benefit of humanity. Furthermore, research and the generation of knowledge and technologies that are adapted to the needs of society are essential and mandatory functions of the university. Ultimately, the knowledge society implies strengthening social learning processes as a strategy to ensure social appropriation and convert them into tangible benefits. In addition, knowledge becomes a critical factor for productive and social development.
The general objective of this research was to determine the relationship between education and the knowledge society in university higher education -2022. The specific objectives are (1) To determine the relationship between the environment and research in university higher education -2022. (2) To determine the relationship between society and technologies in university higher education -2022.
It is proposed as a general research question to investigate what is the relationship between education and the knowledge society in university higher education -2022? As specific problems, to determine what is the relationship between the environment and research in university higher education -2022, and to determine what is the relationship between society and technologies in university higher education -2022?
As a General Hypothesis it is argued that education is significantly related to the knowledge society in university higher education -2022. While the Specific Hypotheses indicate that the environment is significantly related to research in university higher education -2022. Likewise, society is significantly related to technologies in university higher education -2022.
The research responds to quantitative research with correlational design. The total population was located in Metropolitan Lima in 2022, belonging to Peruvian state universities; 759 students from the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (Software Engineering Program); and 1102 students from the Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal (Education Program). As a sample, 256 students from the first institution and study program; and 286 from the second for a total sample of 542 participants.
Two surveys with Likert scale were used as data collection technique; one for the education variable composed of 19 items distributed in the society and environment dimensions. The other for the knowledge society variable was composed of 25 items: distributed in the dimension’s university higher education research and university higher education research.The statistical program SPSS version 26 was used to evaluate the reliability of the surveys, using Cronbach's Alpha statistical test of reliability in a pilot group of 78 students.
For the present research work we proceeded to analyze the correlation between variables in the following way:
The following is proposed:
Ho: The data come from normal populations (N.S. > 0.05)
H1: The data do not come from normal populations (N.S. ˂ 0.05)
Note: Since the sample is larger than 50, the Kolmogorov-Smirnova test has been considered for this study, so it can be observed that the variables do not follow a normal distribution, since the p-value is 0.000 < 0.05. Therefore, the nonparametric Spearman's Rho test will be used to contrast the hypotheses, and thus measure the correlation of the variables.
For the analysis of the relationship between these two variables, Spearman's rho nonparametric test was chosen.
If p ≤ 0.05 Ho is rejected.
H1. Education is significantly related to the knowledge society, in university higher education -2022.
H0. Education is NOT significantly related to the knowledge society, in university higher education -2022.
|Spearman's Rho||Education||Correlation Coefficient||,856**|
Note. The correlation matrix shows a significance value of 0.000, which is less than 0.05, indicating that there is a statistically significant relationship between education and the knowledge society at the university higher education level by the year 2022. The degree of correlation is highly positive, with a numerical value of 0.856. This evidences an intense dependence between the two variables (magnitude of correlation). The correlation is direct, which means that if education increases or decreases, the knowledge society does the same in a constant proportion.
Conclusion: since p is less than 0.01, i.e., 0.000 is less than 0.01*, it follows that education has a statistically significant relationship with the knowledge society, at a 99% confidence level. Therefore, the null hypothesis is discarded and the alternative hypothesis is accepted.
Specific hypothesis 1.
H1. The environment is significantly related to research in university higher education -2022.
H0. Environment is NOT significantly related to research in university higher education -2022.
|Research in univ. higher education|
|Spearman's Rho||Environment||Correlation Coefficient||,866**|
Note. The correlation matrix shows a significance of 0.000, less than 0.05, so there is a statistically significant relationship between the environment and research at the higher education level. The degree of correlation is high positive with a numerical value of 0.866. This shows a high dependence between the two variables (magnitude of correlation). The degree of correlation is direct, indicating that when the environment is higher or decreases, research in university higher education also decreases in constant proportion.
Conclusion: As p ˂ 0.01, i.e., 0.000 ˂ 0.01*, it is concluded that environment has statistically significant relationship with university higher education research, at 99% confidence level. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected and the alternate hypothesis is accepted.
Specific hypothesis 2
H1. Society is significantly related to technologies in university higher education -2022.
H0. Society is NOT significantly related to technologies in university higher education -2022.
|Spearman's Rho||Education||Correlation Coefficient||,704**|
Nota. The correlation table shows a significance of 0.000, less than 0.05, so there is a statistically significant relationship between society and university higher education technology. The degree of correlation is high positive with a numerical value of 0.704. This shows a high dependence between the two variables (magnitude of correlation). The degree of correlation is direct, indicating that when the society is higher or decreases, the technology of university higher education also decreases in constant proportion.
Conclusion: Since p ˂ 0.01, i.e., 0.000 ˂ 0.01*, it is concluded that society has statistically significant relationship with technology in university higher education, at 99% confidence level. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected and the alternative hypothesis is accepted.
In the general hypothesis that formulates: Education is significantly related to the knowledge society, in university higher education -2022. With respect to the degree of significance p ˂ 0.01, that is, 0.000 ˂ 0.01, a high positive correlation was obtained as a result with a numerical value of 0.856. This shows a high dependence between the two variables, given that, the degree of correlation is direct. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected and the alternative hypothesis is accepted. This result coincides with the article by Terrazas & Silva (2013) in their article entitled: Education and the knowledge society. The study presents the situation of knowledge in the framework of education, evaluating both achievements and shortcomings. It is argued that, despite the advances in knowledge, the inability to solve chronic and deeply rooted dilemmas of humanity persists. From this analytical reflection, an educational proposal is synthesized based on seven pillars that should be implemented in the context of contemporary education, with the objective of inculcating competencies, principles, attitudes and values in the development of the individual.
In the specific hypothesis 1, which states: The environment is significantly related to research in university higher education. According to the contrastation analysis, the degree of significance p ˂ 0.05, that is, 0.000 ˂ 0.01, resulted in a high positive correlation with a numerical value of 0.866. Showing a high dependence between the two variables measured, with a degree of direct correlation. Consequently, the null hypothesis is discarded and the alternative hypothesis is accepted. The study is important because it is consistent with the research of Burch (2005), who has included the concept of "knowledge society", or its variant "knowledge societies", in his institutional policies. He has elaborated a reflection on the subject that attempts to integrate a more holistic vision, which is not exclusively linked to the economic dimension.
In the specific hypothesis 2 he formulates: Society is significantly related to technologies in university higher education. It is obtained according to the p ˂ 0.01, that is, 0.002 ˂ 0.01, a correlation is high positive with a numerical value of 0.704 was obtained as a result. Indicating high dependence between the two measured variables, given that, the degree of correlation is direct. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected and the alternative hypothesis is accepted. The obtained coincides with the work of Rodriguez (2018), in the sense that science has opened new doors to the exercise of respect and values; therefore, it is urgent to invest in various areas of production, especially in agribusiness, mining and social and cultural development. However, there is greater affinity with Pescador (2014), who argues that the advance of technology has become an essential pillar for the economic and social growth of nations. In this line, improving the quality of education, providing resources to students and teachers, and training them in the strengthening of digital competencies, has become a crucial mission.
First, in relation to the main objective of the study and the results of the test of the general hypothesis that proposes: Education is significantly related to the knowledge society, in university higher education -2022. The data collected through the research instrument show that the Spearman's rho correlation coefficient is 0.856, which indicates a high positive correlation between the variables analyzed. With a p-value of less than 0.01, i.e., 0.000 less than 0.01*, it is concluded that education has a statistically significant relationship with the knowledge society, with a confidence level of 99%. Therefore, the null hypothesis is discarded and the alternative hypothesis is accepted.
Second, in relation to the first specific objective and the results of the test of specific hypothesis 1 which proposes: The environment is significantly related to research in university higher education -2022. The data collected through the research instrument indicate that the Spearman's rho correlation coefficient is 0.866, which indicates a high positive correlation between the variables analyzed. With a p-value of less than 0.01, i.e., 0.000 less than 0.01*, it is concluded that environment has a statistically significant relationship with research in university higher education, with a confidence level of 99%. Therefore, the null hypothesis is discarded and the alternative hypothesis is accepted.
Third, in relation to the second specific objective and the results of the test of the specific hypothesis 2 which proposes: Society is significantly related to technologies in university higher education -2022. The data collected through the research instrument show that the Spearman's rho correlation coefficient is 0.704, which indicates a high positive correlation between the variables analyzed. With a p-value of less than 0.01, i.e., 0.000 less than 0.01*, it is concluded that society has a statistically significant relationship with technology in university higher education, with a confidence level of 99%. Therefore, the null hypothesis is discarded and the alternative hypothesis is accepted.
Potential limitations: This study focused specifically on higher education in the year 2022, so the results may not be generalizable to other contexts or time periods. Likewise, it is important to consider that the correlation found does not imply a direct causal relationship, since other factors could be influencing the relationship between education, the environment, society and technologies in the context of higher education.
Contributions to scientific knowledge: This study contributes new knowledge to the understanding of the relationship between education and the knowledge society in the context of university higher education. The findings demonstrate a significant correlation between education and the knowledge society, as well as between environment and research, and between society and technology in higher education. These results support the importance of comprehensively addressing the interaction between education, environment, society and technologies at the university level. Furthermore, by accepting the alternative hypotheses, statistical evidence is provided that these relationships are statistically significant, which strengthens the body of scientific knowledge in this field. These findings can be used by academics, policy makers and practitioners in the field of education to promote educational strategies that foster the knowledge society, research and the effective use of technology in the context of higher education.
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Conflicts of interest: The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
Mendoza Lacma, J D: Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Research, Methodology, Supervision, Validation, Visualization, Writing - original draft, Writing: review and editing; Uría Sánchez, M B: Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Methodology, Project management, Visualization, Writing - original draft, Writing: Review and edit; Colca García, H L: Formal analysis, Research, Methodology, Visualization, Writing - original draft, Writing: revising and editing; García Gómez, E P: Research, Methodology, Software, Visualization, Writing - original draft, Writing: revising and editing.
Informed consent: Informed consent was obtained from all subjects involved in the study.
Data availability statement: Not applicable