Vol. 6 No. 2 (2023): July-December [Edit closure: 31/07/2023]
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Franco Gutiérrez, A., & Reyes Alvarado, S. (2023). Innovative tools for the planning, evaluation and writing of academic content in university teacher. Delectus, 6(2),13-24. https://doi.org/10.36996/delectus.v6i2.207
Maestry in Higher Educational Management, Faculty of Humanities and Educational Sciences, Hosanna University, Panama
National Science Secretary, Technology and Innovation, National Research System, SENACYT, Panama
Before the arrival of the global pandemic, universities had virtual learning platforms for their work. However, teachers worldwide needed training to be able to continue with the training process. Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop a training on innovative tools for planning, evaluation and writing of academic content for 33 teachers at Hosanna University. This study was of mixed type, since data were collected through instruments such as the observation guide, the questionnaire and the structured interview. As for the results, 93.9% of the teachers develop their planning. In addition, the impact of the training is evident, since teachers recognize planning as a systematic process to organize strategies, methods, actions and resources, both human and material. On the other hand, teachers also understand evaluation as a systematic and continuous process to obtain objective and relevant information on learning processes. This implies obtaining data to measure, assess and make timely decisions. In conclusion, there is evidence of the adoption of the principles established in the educational model, where authentic evaluation is reflected in the planning. In addition, an approach to the knowledge of the different elements that are part of the planning is observed. However, weaknesses are still evident in the adoption of the Educational Model.
Keywords: Training; Planning; Evaluation; Innovation; Writing.
Education is a human process that, fortunately, is never complete. It is always being reviewed, evaluated and questioned, but it remains useful and indispensable for the development of humanity. According to Savater (1997), "I will speak of the value of educating in the double sense of the word 'value': I mean that education is valuable and valid, but it is also an act of courage, a brave act on the part of human beings" (p.19). Savater makes it clear that the act of educating involves two protagonists: the one who strives for another to learn and be educated, and the one who has the need to learn and be educated. Education itself is a human value, as are those who take the risk of educating. To accomplish this task, one must begin by changing oneself.
Higher education is considered a functioning system with a life of its own, as its development, evolution and functioning meet the needs of where it takes place. In the case of the Republic of Panama, the complexity of the current situation, caused by the pandemic that was announced in 2020, has caused accelerated changes due to uncertainty and the need to continue with the formative processes. These rapid changes and the decisions made have revealed educational needs at all levels, which has led to an increase in inequalities of opportunities for access to education, since technology is here to stay and not everyone has the means, resources or skills necessary to maintain educational quality as it continues.
The objective of this study was to offer reflections, criteria and actions in favor of the quality of university education in Panama. It seeks to provide a critical and reflective vision on the processes of change and updating of educational praxis to strengthen practices. In the context of the pandemic declaration, the university community has exposed the deepest needs of education that have been hidden due to the daily life of traditional and face-to-face education, the lack of empathy on the part of those in power and the postponement of what was urgent.
It is true that, in 2020, the processes towards virtual mode accelerated dramatically, moving now towards a hybrid mode that requires even more skills from teachers, from planning to implementation. Although some universities or educational centers were already familiar with virtuality, for many it came as a surprise and they were forced to improvise without solid foundations during the teaching-learning process. The risks of inequality increase both for those who receive education and for those who deliver it. It is evident that decisions that were thought to be postponed must be taken immediately, revealing a fragmented vision of the various factors that must be considered at present in order to seek improvements. This is a challenge for the entire educational community.
Education is understood as everything that is learned, incorporated, adjusted and evidenced in the relationships that are established at any time and place. Furthermore, it is a continuous and systematic process that is considered a human right and guarantees the development of societies, as these are measured by their educational levels. As mentioned in the Dakar World Forum Report (2000), education is "a fundamental human right and, as such, is a key element for sustainable development, peace and stability in each country and among nations, and therefore an indispensable means to participate in the social and economic systems of the 21st century" (p.8).
Education as a right is reflected in different societies through educational centers, which have the responsibility to train using various models and approaches supported by theories that evolve over time, taking into account technological advances and the changes that have occurred in the last two years. They have had to move forward, adapt and incorporate changes to deal with the arrival of the pandemic. Educational processes have undergone multiple rapid changes, which has been a real challenge for all involved. These changes translate into ensuring the continuity of formal educational processes.
Therefore, it can be stated that education is changing, dynamic and evolves according to the context and its particularities. That is why formal education refers to planned training, whose models must be updated and contextualized. A model is understood as the guiding instrument that orients the processes and ensures the identity between the institution and those who implement it. Here, it is necessary to emphasize that higher education is closely linked to multiple technological and training factors and to the different relationships that are established, not only with the environment as a means of learning, but also with the relationships that are established as biopsychosocial beings, and how these affect the teaching-learning process. With the suspension of face-to-face meetings, it is evident that education has undergone changes related to the modalities, and although the virtual modality was already being implemented at Hosanna University and in other academic spaces, now it has become generalized; being its use determinant to guarantee the continuity of the processes. There have been successes and failures that have been improved along the way, but there is still a long way to go.
Education should not be limited to the transmission of content in a classroom; it transcends borders and incorporates technology, revealing shortcomings, opening gaps and demonstrating that we were not fully prepared to dispense with face-to-face teaching. We must look at processes in a different way, leaving aside fragmented training and considering integrality to understand and analyze what concerns us, affects us and occupies us.
We are in the era of knowledge, where the Internet is within the reach of almost everyone and information is presented in real time, shortening time and distance. A context-centered education must consider everything that happens around it. This seeks to develop competencies. According to Alles (2007), competencies "are individual characteristics that reflect personality traits, manifested in observable behaviors that can be evaluated" (p.23).
This means that the relationship between formal education, the individual and society is manifested through behaviors in everyday life, and a fundamental role is played by the updating of methods, strategies and resources used in the educational act; which must respond to the context, including the new emerging models. This is where the teacher comes into play as a subject of education, an actor in society, a transmitter of the culture that precedes him/her and a mediator of knowledge. The teacher must plan, organize, have intentionality and anticipate the development of the students. At the same time, a teacher training process is required, but in reality this time does not exist; it is necessary to advance and acquire competencies in practice. There is evidence of errors, improvisations, emotions that come to the surface, since teachers are exposed due to the lack of applicable knowledge in the technological field. Classes generate stress, teasing and even episodes of frustration. All this becomes evident due to the abrupt change. I do not intend to blame teachers for the shortcomings, I recognize the great effort they make to stay afloat, despite being hit by sudden changes.
Continuing with the outstanding role of the teacher, it is the teacher who is in charge of stimulating thought through intentional actions. The teacher creates experiences that are lived through practices and generate emotions, thus showing the full magnitude of didactics. In addition, the role of the teacher in society is considered as a transforming agent, an inspirer and an example to follow. Freire (2010), referring to the role of the teacher in educational processes, expresses: "My role in the world, as a curious, intelligent and intrusive subjectivity in the objectivity with which I relate dialectically, is not only to note what happens, but also to intervene as a subject of what happens" (p. 12). In this way, the teacher is an actor in and from reality; by transforming it, he also transforms himself and those to whom he transmits and shares his culture, through his work and determination in history.
Virtual education involves the combination of intellect and emotion to generate a life experience that transcends the screen, that connects and establishes links in positive environments to achieve new knowledge. Teacher training for education and society is supported by UNESCO (2014), stating that if the teacher does not change, relevant changes in educational processes that respond to social demands cannot be made. Therefore, today's teacher requires soft skills, technological skills and knowledge in his or her area. The teacher's goal in his practice is to make his students achieve learning, which implies the acquisition of new knowledge that promotes the mental development of each individual, and which is evidenced through his behavior. To do this, it is necessary to store information that will later be used at a given time. When applying knowledge, skills or abilities are developed that demonstrate what has been learned, since only in this way can the progress achieved by the student in terms of values, knowledge, attitudes and procedures be measured. In this sense, it is important to highlight the importance of knowing the different instruments that allow the collection of data to measure achievements.
Human learning consists mainly of acquiring, processing, understanding and finally applying the knowledge acquired throughout life. However, in this context, what is learned in the academic spaces of higher education stands out, where the assimilation of information depends largely on the mental capacity of the learner. Therefore, methodology, techniques and activities play a fundamental role in the teaching-learning process, they must be organized and intentional, so the teacher must plan each academic encounter in order to achieve the objectives in a coherent manner.
In higher education, the teacher must have a deep knowledge of the different methods for the development of planning, which we will call strategic planning from now on. This planning allows the incorporation of various elements to achieve the quality of the processes and is considered one of the fundamental pillars that must be approached with rigor. It must address both training in the specific area of knowledge and the integral formation of the citizen, combining skills that allow them to solve problems in complex and dynamic contexts. Educators are the guarantors of the transformation of each individual who has the opportunity for academic training. Educators must move forward to innovate in their teaching, evidencing the changes generated by current social dynamics as a result of the virtualization of the educational act. In the traditional system, instruction focused on the teacher and not on the needs and interests of students. Today, the teaching process is centered on the student as the protagonist of his or her own learning, active in the different methods applied. As Savater (1997) stated:
Teaching is intrinsically linked to time, as a deliberate and socially necessary transfusion of a collectively elaborated memory, of a shared creative imagination. There is no learning that does not imply temporal consciousness and that does not respond directly or indirectly to it, although the cultural profiles of this consciousness -cyclical, linear, transcendent or immanent, of maximum or minimum chronological scope...- are enormously varied (p.21).
The author raises the importance of temporality in educational processes. Nowadays, educational models and practices must adapt quickly to new social demands. To achieve this, it is essential to bring teachers closer to the management not only of the different theories, but also of technology, through updating and training. This guarantees educational quality at the higher level, using planning and evaluation as two complementary aspects that are supported by the educational model.
It should be noted that the scientific question that governed this research posed the following: "Do university teachers have the necessary tools to build a planning that links authentic evaluation and academic content writing, taking into account technology and new educational modalities?" This led to the formulation of the general objective, which was to propose a training on innovative tools for strategic planning, authentic assessment and academic content writing, aimed at university teachers.
The author states that the research follows a mixed approach, which implies the application of systematic and critical processes involving the collection and analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data. These data are analyzed together to achieve a more complete understanding of the phenomenon under study. Chen (2006), cited by Sampieri, defines this approach as the systematic integration of quantitative and qualitative methods in a single study, with the aim of obtaining a more complete view of the phenomenon. These methods can be combined in a way that preserves their original structures and procedures (pure form of mixed methods), or they can be adapted, modified or synthesized to address the costs of the study (modified form of mixed methods).
The mixed approach offers several advantages. According to Todd, Werlich and Mckeown (2004), it provides an accurate perspective on the phenomenon being studied, increases confidence that the results are a true and accurate representation of what is occurring, helps clarify and theorize about the problem statement, and determines the most appropriate ways to investigate and theorize about research problems.
On the other hand, the quantitative approach uses data collection and analysis to answer research objectives and test previously established hypotheses. It is based on numerical measurement and frequently uses statistics to establish patterns of behavior in a population. Data collection is done through surveys and polls of a sample of the population. These techniques facilitate the collection of data that will contribute to the study.
In the case of this study, the survey was used as a data collection technique, applying a questionnaire with closed questions to the teachers of Hosanna University. Then, the data were analyzed with statistical methods. The purpose of this study was to know the current status of teachers in relation to their teaching practice, specifically in terms of planning, academic content writing and evaluation. The data were treated in group form so as not to affect the working relationship between the teachers and the university.
The instruments used in this study were validated using the expert judgment method. Expert judgment is a validation method that guarantees the reliability of the research. It is based on the informed opinions of people with experience and knowledge in the subject, who are recognized as qualified experts and can provide information, judgments and assessments (Escobar, 2008).
Regarding ethical considerations, during the development of the research, the principles of respect and confidentiality of the information were highlighted. For this purpose, the provisions of national and international legal norms related to the development of research and the handling of personal data were followed. In addition, participants were informed that the results would not be associated with the teacher surveyed. The data were treated in a group manner, which does not harm the working relationship they have with the university.
Within the framework of this research project, an observation guide was used to validate the coherence between what was planned by the teacher and what was established in the educational model of Hosanna University. This model is based on a competency-based assessment and emphasizes the socio-formative curricular approach to assess learning.
The objective is to achieve quality in higher education, considering the teacher as a mediator of knowledge, to ensure a meaningful experience from andragogy and bring students closer to the acquisition of new knowledge that is reflected in the different profiles of graduation. Educational practice requires updated teachers, capable of reflecting on their practices, planning, organizing, managing and implementing processes, making use of technology that plays a fundamental role in current educational models.
The teaching practice itself is a challenge that demands from the teacher the mastery of both soft and hard skills. In other words, they must have cognitive, social and technological skills that are put into practice in their teaching work. It is important to emphasize that the use of technology is a competence that requires immediacy, since virtual or hybrid modalities will be maintained over time.
One of the essential components to achieve the purpose of teaching in higher education is didactics, understood as the art of teaching using methods and techniques that generate significant learning in adults, who are autonomous subjects capable of directing and planning their own learning process, but who require a teacher to act as a mediator. Therefore, a distinctive didactic approach is needed that allows for the learning of all participants, using the curricular approaches proposed in the Hosanna Educational Model.
Although our students are adults and are planned under an andragogical approach, they still need strategies and methods that promote the achievement of meaningful learning that respond to the context and place them in a real professional environment.
It is important to emphasize that there are multiple methods that can be combined to mutually reinforce each other, depending on the competencies proposed by the teacher. The analysis and knowledge of each concrete situation will make it possible to determine the teacher's possibilities for action and development in the art of education (teacher learning). The multiplicity of methods influences renewal and quality in higher education, i.e. teachers who are up to date and committed to their professional improvement.
Figure 1. Diagnosis of how teachers at Hosanna University of Panama develop the planning and evaluation processes in the first quarter of 2022.
In the results obtained from the observation guide applied to the 33 teachers, it is evident that 79% of them do not plan by competencies as established in the educational model of Hosanna University. Instead, they use the objective-based approach in their planning. This highlights the need to implement training that orients teachers on the importance of guaranteeing the applicability of the model and ensuring that planning is developed under the description of competencies that point to the graduate profile of the university's programs. Only 21% of the teachers incorporate the competencies in the design of the analytical planning.
Regarding the incorporation of authentic evaluations, which are pertinent to place the student in real situations related to their professional field, it is observed that 64% of the teachers do not use evaluation instruments that evidence this authentic methodology. Instead, they continue to use traditional instruments. Only 36% of teachers use this type of instruments in their planning. These results demonstrate the need for training that teaches teachers the importance of applying authentic evaluations, which impact on practical competencies beyond the acquisition of theoretical knowledge.
It was found that 52% of teachers do not apply assessment instruments coherent with what is planned in terms of competencies or objectives, which indicates a lack of coherence between planning and the selection of instruments to measure the scope of new knowledge. On the other hand, 48% of teachers do use instruments that provide evidence of the acquisition of new knowledge, although they are not designed under the authentic assessment approach, but they are coherent with the planning.
Regarding the use of the E-book as an innovative tool for learning planning, 73% of teachers do not use it, while only 33% do use it. This highlights the need to train teachers in the design and use of the E-book, as described in the university's educational model. It is proposed to link this topic in the training modules for teachers.
The educational model of an institution is fundamental, since it provides the theoretical foundations to guide the teaching practice in the teaching-learning process. It also strengthens institutional identity and establishes guidelines to guarantee educational quality and maintain homogeneity. As technology advances, new educational models emerge and institutions must update and adapt evaluation methodologies and strategies to be in line with the social reality and context.
In the case of Hosanna University, it has an educational model that has been strengthened by updating it, based on theoretical approaches aimed at achieving educational quality. However, the results show that 67% of teachers do not apply methods based on the socio-formative approach, which indicates that they continue to use more traditional approaches in their planning. Only 33% of teachers apply methods based on the socio-formative and competency-based approach, as established in the educational model. This suggests the need to publicize the characteristics of the model and guarantee homogeneity in planning, regardless of the area of knowledge, in order to ensure educational quality. It is imperative that teachers know and apply the different postulates of the model in their planning, and that they incorporate the suggested technologies to guarantee innovative practices.
The interviews conducted allow an approach with the teachers, where it is possible to perceive not only their level of knowledge about the different topics shared during the training, but also their body language and emotional state when responding. The interviews provide valuable information about their own teaching practice, the design of planning and evaluations, and the appropriation of the concepts shared during the training.
Teachers identified with the shared concepts, valued their practice and made changes in their approaches. The interviews demonstrate the teachers' ability to recognize and value the elements that make up planning as a systematic, organized, intentional and contextualized guide. These elements break with instrumental schemes and approach the organization of strategies, methods, actions and resources that, intelligently administered, make it possible to achieve the intentions and projected goals that meet the needs of the human collective in multiple dimensions. Based on the results of the diagnosis, a pretest and posttest instrument is planned to evaluate the progress and changes in the teachers.
Comparative analysis corresponding to the pretest and post-test applied
For you, which is the planning concept that best suits your reality?
It is interesting to note that, in the pretest, only 27% of the teachers surveyed were able to correctly identify the meaning of planning, which implies organizing, defining and selecting coherent methods, techniques and strategies for the educational act. However, at the end of the training, the post-test revealed that 93.9% of the teachers were able to understand this concept. This demonstrates the impact of the new tools and knowledge acquired during the training, which is reflected in teaching practice.
Although the high percentage of correct answers in the post-test indicates a good level of acquired knowledge, it is important to highlight that there is a weakness in the practice of coherent planning of competencies. It is necessary for teachers to develop the ability to apply what they have learned in practice, so that it is reflected in planning and in the corresponding evaluation instruments.
This highlights the importance of practice and experience so that teachers can translate theory into practice and effectively apply the concepts learned in their planning and evaluations. A continuous focus on the development of planning skills is required to ensure the proper implementation of competencies in the educational process.
Which of the following models do you use when designing your planning?
The results of the pre-training survey shown that only 6% of the teachers surveyed were able to correctly identify Hosanna University's educational model. However, after the training, in the post-training instrument, an increase in the teachers' knowledge and applicability of the model is observed, reaching 33.3%. In addition, 30.3% of the teachers use the constructivist model, while another 33.3% use the competency-based model, both of which are part of the educational model of Hosanna University.
It is important to note that the university's educational model combines salient aspects of constructivism and the competency-based model, and links them with the socio-formative approach. This approach seeks to update and understand the transformations in the current educational processes, and offers new alternatives to make the educational model known through inductions and a dissemination plan in the different communication channels used by the university.
These results indicate the importance of strengthening the dissemination and promotion of the educational model among teachers, to ensure its understanding and application in teaching practice. It also highlights the need to continue with training and constant support so that teachers can effectively implement the educational model in their planning and pedagogical practices.
What is the concept of evaluation that best suits your practice?
In the pre-training instrument, it is observed that 30% of the teachers surveyed consider that the concept that best fits their practice is that evaluation is a systematic and continuous process of seeking objective and relevant information about learning processes. This involves obtaining data to measure, assess and make timely decisions. After the training, in the subsequent instrument, it is observed that 42.4% of teachers adopt this perspective, which indicates an appropriation of the terms and tools shared during the training for their application in planning.
On the other hand, 51.5% of the teachers choose the option that indicates that evaluation is an axis that permeates the entire teaching-learning process, making it possible to measure the achievements attained by students and to establish comparative parameters for decision making. This option emphasizes the importance of a constant, pertinent and timely evaluation, in order to make decisions within the established time frame.
Both options reflect the teachers' knowledge of the term "evaluation" and are relevant in their context. However, the option that emphasizes the concept of permeability highlights the influence and impact of assessment on the entire teaching-learning process. It emphasizes the importance of continuous, relevant and timely assessment for decision making at the right time.
In your opinion, what do the evaluation agents imply?
In the pre-training instrument, only 27% of the teachers select the option that indicates that evaluation implies co-responsibility in the assessment, which implies that the teacher is no longer the only figure and the student is incorporated as the protagonist of his/her own learning. After the training, in the subsequent instrument, the percentage of teachers who select this option increases to 42.4%. In addition, 33.3% of the teachers consider that the evaluation implies the participation of all those involved in the process, which can enrich all participants. On the other hand, 24.2% of teachers choose the option that indicates that evaluation implies the incorporation of the student as the protagonist of his or her own learning.
When analyzing these results, it can be seen that a high percentage of teachers consider that evaluation implies assessment and co-responsibility, recognizing that the student, as an active agent of his own learning, should participate in his own evaluation. This is in line with the educational model and supports the importance of self-evaluation in andragogical processes, where the active and responsible participation of students in their learning process is promoted.
Once the research data were obtained, we proceeded to triangulate the quantitative and qualitative results from the perspective of planning and evaluation.
At the planning level, from the quantitative perspective, teachers reach a 93.9% knowledge and understanding of the term "planning" and its importance. This demonstrates the positive impact of the training. However, in practice, a weakness in coherent planning of competencies is evident. Therefore, practice is required for teachers to develop the ability to translate theory into practice, which will be reflected in planning and evaluation instruments.
It is evident that teachers are committed to planning and understand its implication in the quality of higher education, which is reflected in the results of the planning carried out. In line with this, Cepeda (2013) states, "For adequate planning, the teacher must consider the following elements: 'What to plan for, ensure the achievement of objectives and trace the possible paths that will make us fulfill them'" (p.14).
On the other hand, from the qualitative perspective, the impact of training on the understanding of planning as a systematic process of organizing strategies, methods, actions and human and material resources to achieve the projected goals and satisfy the needs of the human collective is evident. Planning is not reduced to the organization of processes or the fulfillment of administrative aspects, but integrates didactic, methodological and technological elements in a coherent manner, seeking innovation and quality in higher education. Gutiérrez (2003) emphasizes: "Education is not 'for...'. It has an end in itself, in the people themselves who relate to the intention of becoming more people. Because... the action of educating cannot be other than that of giving to the growing human being the possibility of a full personal development" (p.5).
Regarding evaluation, from the quantitative data it is evident that teachers understand evaluation as a systematic and continuous process of searching for objective and pertinent information about learning processes. Evaluation implies obtaining data to measure, assess and make timely decisions, which permeates the entire teaching-learning process. It is important to emphasize the importance of an authentic, formative, constant, pertinent and timely evaluation to guarantee high levels of quality. As Murphy (2006, cited by Brian and Clegg, 2019) mentions, "Student assessment for many educators is one of the most difficult things to resolve satisfactorily and in many contexts leads to some of the fiercest debates" (p. 38).
From the qualitative perspective, assessment is no longer seen as a teacher's sole activity in which the teacher exercises a role as a controller and owner of the truth. It is recognized that the functions of evaluation correspond to multiple variables that intervene in the entire teaching-learning process and allow timely decisions to be made. However, a concern about extemporaneous evaluations is evident, since they do not allow students to know their reality and take the necessary corrective measures before it is too late. As Bloxham and Boyd (2007) argue, "Being able to reproduce knowledge on a decontextualized test does not guarantee that the knowledge can be used in a real-life setting" (p. 193). This highlights the importance of relevant assessment in creating a culture of quality and improving teaching practice through the systematic organization of content.
Ensuring the quality of Higher Education is not only a challenge, it is a life commitment that requires determination, perseverance and passion. This commitment begins with planning and culminates with the satisfaction of the goals achieved; evidenced through the evaluation and implementation of the competencies acquired by the students.
It is important to emphasize that teachers, as mediators in the process of knowledge construction, face the challenge of keeping themselves updated in the different tools available for the design of planning. Competency-based planning, as established in the educational model, implies an increase in the improvement of educational quality and the personal, social and labor success of students, which has an impact on the social life of the country.
For the educational sector, this implies broadening perspectives and having information on environmental trends, as well as establishing alliances with the productive world to provide students with new meaningful experiences. Planning should reflect the intentionality, relevance and quality of each of the activities to be developed.
The appropriation of the postulates set forth in the educational model is evidenced, where the active participation of the student as a responsible adult is valued, under an andragogic approach. Authentic evaluation can be glimpsed in the planning, which allows measuring and assessing the scope of the competencies achieved by the participants.
It is understood that once the planning is defined, the appropriate instruments must be designed to collect the data to be evaluated, in order to determine the progress in the acquisition of new knowledge through close dialogue and self-evaluation at opportune moments, which facilitates decision making.
The emotional component is evident when the teacher feels satisfied with the achievements obtained and is concerned about maintaining constant renewal, with the objective of having a positive impact on his/her teaching practice.
On the other hand, an approach to the knowledge of the different elements that are part of planning is evident. However, there are still weaknesses in the appropriation of the Educational Model, which is a fundamental tool to achieve innovation in planning designs and their subsequent implementation in practice. This underscores the need to continue strengthening practices through continuous training.
Limitations: First, it is observed that a significant percentage of teachers do not fully incorporate the shared concepts and approaches in their planning, indicating that there is a gap between the theoretical knowledge acquired and its practical application. In addition, a resistance to change is identified in some teachers, who still rely on traditional approaches to planning and evaluation. This lack of adaptation may hinder the development of innovative practices and limit the scope of benefits that could be derived from training.
Contribution to scientific knowledge: Research on innovative tools for the planning, evaluation and writing of academic content in university teachers has provided important contributions to scientific knowledge. First, it has identified the need to train teachers in the use of updated technological tools and pedagogical approaches to adapt to changes in the educational environment. This has led to an understanding of the importance of competency-based planning and authentic assessment as: key elements for improving the quality of higher education. In addition, the research has revealed the importance of continuous training and teacher accompaniment to ensure the effective transfer of knowledge acquired in training to daily practice. These findings contribute to the development of strategies to improve teacher training and the implementation of innovative practices in the academic environment.
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Conflicts of interest: The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
Franco Gutiérrez, A: Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Research, Methodology, Resources, Software, Supervision, Validation, Visualization, Writing - original draft, Writing: revising and editing; Reyes Alvarado, S: Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Research, Methodology, Project management, Resources, Validation, Visualization, Writing - original draft, Writing: revising and editing.
Informed consent: Informed consent was obtained from all subjects involved in the study.
Data availability statement: Not applicable