Vol. 6 No. 1 (2023): January-June [Edit closure: 31/01/2023]
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Bustos Carpio, M. A. (2023). Neurodidactic transformation and emotional intelligence: a generational reflection on the teaching-learning process. Delectus, 6(1), 59-70. https://doi.org/10.36996/delectus.v6i1.206
Private Technological University of Santa Cruz, Bolivia
Currently, the emergence of neurosciences has managed to change the paradigm contributing in such a way changes in different disciplines focused on education for the optimization of didactics according to the neuronal processes as the axis of the discovery of new forms of connection with the brain, coming to understand the diversification of the different generations. The present article is based on the motive of making a generational reflection in the teaching-learning process; the research obtained is considered for the development of knowledge generation that needs to know the behavior that generations have in relation to education. In this perspective, a collection of information was carried out, where the criteria of the article consist of a documentary bibliographic study based on a review of books specialized in neurodidactics and emotional intelligence. Likewise, it has a narrative theory approach accompanied by exhaustive bibliographic research of concepts on the components that will highlight the importance of the integration of the topic addressed. The purpose of the article is to generate reflective contributions reflective contributions contextualizing the neurodidactic transformation and emotional intelligence with a generational reflection in education, since each generation is totally different, therefore, the challenge of the current and future transition in the teaching-learning process must be assumed.Keywords: Neurodidactics; Intelligence; Emotions; Teaching-Learning; Education.
Nowadays, we live disruptive changes influenced by the cultural environment, consequently new challenges are assumed from an educational context that has been evidenced in the presentiality and virtuality, in this optics, answers are required based on the new ways of reflection of the different generations that have lived a cultural and behavioral change in teachers and students within the teaching-learning process.
There are different paradigms and principles that revolve within the educational environment that force the development of different perceptions in the face of this generational complexity of lifestyles. In the words of Cleosilda, Palma, & Oswaldo (2017) consider that emotional intelligence has made great contributions to the field of emotional education in the component of teacher training and especially in the conceptualization of the didactic sequence for the formation of affective competencies that incorporates novel and innovative elements in the area. In addition to the above, the contributions to neurosciences made by authors such as Damasio (1997), LeDoux (1995) and Llinás (2005) have allowed a better understanding of the brain functioning of emotions, consolidating new fields such as neurodidactics. (p. 95).
In this context, the integration of neurodidactics with emotional intelligence fosters the inclusion and development of skills, thus promoting new approaches to methods, taking into account the individuality and diversity of the environment, enhancing knowledge based on the creation of resources for a better interaction of the reality that is lived, generating new understandings in the face of this complexity.
The present research is inscribed in an integrating perspective that addresses a reflection determined by the participation of generations of teachers and students. In this sense, contributions from neurodidactics and the influence of emotional intelligence in the teaching-learning process are taken up with the objective of generating contributions with a generational reflection in education, since each generation is totally different, therefore, the specific objectives will be directed to the following contents:
In order to know and analyze the neurodidactic transformation and emotional intelligence in the teaching-learning process, the methodology implemented for the research work is based on a bibliographic article of document analysis because secondary information available in books, articles and theses was collected. In this sense, the research used is of documentary qualitative origin in the words of Lozano (2016), it corresponds with "a strategy of understanding and analysis of theoretical realities through the review of different documentary sources, through a systematic and organized approach" (p. 23), for this reason, the design assumes the bibliographic character grounded by means of physical and electronic documentary sources.
The research design used has a narrative theory approach with an exhaustive bibliographic review of concepts on the components of neurodidactics, emotional intelligence and generations, for this reason, the research is ascribed to an interpretative perspective of the complexity that collects the narratives that people make of their lives and their relationships. In this context, reality is understood as a process of social construction, therefore, the approach to the "objects" is not given in a direct way, but mediated by the "subjects" in relation. And the gaze is then placed there, on what the subjects think (consciously or unconsciously), feel (whether they express it directly or not) and do (or perhaps omit) (Cardona, 2015).
The units of analysis of the present article have the coverage of a scenario of the social context aligned in topics of neurodidactic transformation and emotional intelligence in generations, the procedure for the treatment of information was carried out according to explanatory techniques motivated to a reflection of the proposed topic.
Today, a generation gap exists as each generation carries different lifestyle characteristics that are challenging to address and understand. In the words of the authors Kotler, Setiawan, & Setiawan say that the generational approach "is that those born and raised in the same period have lived through the same significant events and, therefore, share socio-cultural experiences and are likely to possess similar sets of values, attitudes and behaviors" (Kotler, Setiawan, & Setiawan, 2022).
Nothing is static, everything changes, due to the fact that we are living an educational metamorphosis in search of emerging solutions by turning to new experiences that involve a generational reflection within the educational process. Generations are a kind of time of which have lived different events; conformed by the "Baby Boomers" in the words of Mass (2022) "derives from the boom of births that took place after the return of the soldiers after the Second World War. Although this was not the reason for the increase in the birth rate in all developed countries", it is considered that this generation was the first to adapt to technologies, because they lived in an analog stage, being called digital immigrants.
After the Baby Boomers, the "generation X" is classified as "generation X", "has as a symbol an X that represents, above all, the indefinition. They were held back by strong economic recessions, which, in many cases, delayed their emancipation and economic independence" (Mas, 2022). Similarly, the so-called "Millennials" also emerge, although the characteristics may vary for various sociocultural reasons according to the environment in which they live "Technology is part of their daily lives: all their activities pass through the intermediation with a screen. However, they were not born with it, but were born in the analog era, but migrated to the digital world" (Fiorito, 2020, p. 197). Finally, the "Centennials" known as digital natives because they interact with technologies from a very young age in their daily lives in family, work and education, they can perform various activities, however, their attention span is very short.
Numerous studies are currently contemplating the generation gap in different aspects of life, the linguistic dimension being no exception. According to the classification, Baby Boomer (born approximately between 1950-1965), Generation X (1965-1980), Millennials (1980-2000) and Centennials (2000-present) coexist from the same environment following patterns of behaviors marked by the time and experiential factor where technology produces changes in the field of communication (Vico, Vega, & Buzon, 2021, p. 111). The following is a representation of the time frame and historical circumstances they have lived through:
Figure 1. Classification of generations and disruptive changes
Source: (Vico, Vega, & Buzon, 2021, p. 111).
Neurosciences have had relevance in the integration of didactics and emotional intelligence, in it is articulated within the educational context allowing to know and recognize the importance of brain functioning for the development of strategies and decision making. The human brain is considered as the most important organs of the human body and has to its control of all the functions of the organism, in the words of the author "The brain is not a glass to be filled; but a lamp to be lit"; and this is the work of the educator (Castañón, 2018, p. 32).
The following illustration shows the connectivity of the brain at the moment the information stops within the communicational process is when the student considers that he does not need about that message issued in a class, first it enters through the thalamus, subsequently through the ganglia, finally it is directed in the prefrontal cortex. The basal ganglia system protects the brain, ideally it is when the person manages to learn, in this sense the conscious decisions are made without generating noise from the environment.
Figure 2. Diagram of the brain's information filtering systems
Source: (Sousa, 2014, p. 106).
Note that information that is selected as worthy of further consideration flows through the connecting fibers to the thalamus. From there, it is distributed for interpretation in the associative areas of the brain. Working memory depends on a constant review of information and a loop that associates new information. Teachers can make the learning environment appealing to the curious and personally attracted nature of the human brain by providing information about how their brain reacts to new information and help them calibrate (Sousa, 2014, p. 107).
The studies generated gave rise to different subcategories of neuroscience, among them it is worth mentioning neurodidactics which has had a historical breakthrough that involves using stimuli for better feedback in the message thus creating interest in the face of the diversity of generations of students. In the words of the author Ocampo (2019) neurodidactics is a feasible, viable, pertinent, achievable, and attainable task; for which teachers, students, must be involved through a set of neuroconfiguring actions that scientifically structured, in the form of a system, could guarantee the achievement of more optimal results in the training of new professionals (p. 65).
There are studies describing the influence of emotional intelligence perceived from the coping of daily stress that support the related hypothesis that emotional intelligence favors emotional well-being by promoting adaptive coping in the face of stress (Puigbó, Edo, Rovira, Limonero, & Fernández, 2019). For its part, reference is also made to the relationship between emotional intelligence, negative affect and suicidal risk in young university students, thus considering it necessary to design preventive psychological interventions to reduce suicidal ideation and risk (Gómez, Limonero, Toro, Montes, & Tomás, 2018).
The following is the classification of the capabilities of emotional intelligence proposed by the author Daniel Goleman, indicating that these four components can be internal to oneself or external to the human being, consequently, competencies must be created to understand and manage family, cultural and educational situations.
Self-awareness is the first component of the proposal which is called intrapersonal intelligence, this component is not isolated, but integrated to the other components for personal integral growth, in Ontoria's words "it is the information I have about my qualities and defects that I possess. It is objective and possesses the areas of intellectual, labor, social, emotional, spiritual, leisure, health, family and love" (Ontoria, 2018, p. 18). The competencies and components that make up self-awareness are shown below:
Competencies of emotional intelligence (self-awareness).
Source: (Acosta, 2016).
The self-regulation are the biological impulses that determine the internal emotions, that is to say, that are considered as the own emotions where it is primordial to analyze and to canalize with respect to the environment, in Goleman's words. The self-regulation, is a kind of continuous inner conversation, it is the one that can enclose our own feelings. The indicators of emotional self-regulation are therefore easy to see: tendency to reflect and meditate, comfort in the face of ambiguity and change, and also integrity, i.e., the ability to repress impulsive desire (Goleman, 2014). The following table shows the competencies and components that make up self-regulation:
Competencies of emotional intelligence (self-regulation)
Source: (Acosta, 2016).
The third component is called "social awareness" which within the capabilities of emotional intelligence are alien because it makes a discovery and analysis of what happens in the environment of the person, thus understanding their concerns, problems and needs, in the words of Acosta argues the discovery of emotions. This makes it possible to grasp the needs and desires of others through subtle messages and to tune in with them. The knowledge of these other people's emotions will undoubtedly facilitate their subsequent management: the ability to manage our relationship with others, especially in cases of conflicts (Acosta, 2016, p. 149). The following table shows the competencies and components that make up social awareness.
Competencies of emotional intelligence (social awareness)
Source: (Acosta, 2016).
Finally, the last component "social skills" interacts according to the emotions of others and is part of the capabilities of others. In this sense, the process must have certain types of skills such as independence, teamwork and inspirational leadership, in Ontoria's words "it is one of the most difficult competencies to acquire since to develop it the individual needs to relate to others and the acquisition of other competencies that have to be developed previously is necessary" (Ontoria, 2018, p. 10). The competencies and components that make up the social skill are shown below:
Competencies of emotional intelligence (social skill)
Source: Own elaboration based on the competencies of emotional intelligence (Acosta, 2016).
The human being is involved in uncertainties that can be cognitive as well as historical. From a historical context in the sixties, it was spoken on the basis of continuous dialogue and understanding with educators, called popular education led by Paulo Freire who has considered social ethics as a reflection. Consequently, new needs arise, since the world is evolving and there is a paradigm shift in the forms of communication of the teaching-learning process seeking an emotional bonding and interaction in the different generations.
According to Lopez in the book of the power of digital relationships, there are seven generations of which he mentions four that he considers the most important, taking into account that during that time various phenomena have occurred. Among the generations, he classifies the following: Baby Boomer Generation (born between 1946-1965), Generation X (born between 1965-1980), Generation Y (born between 1980-1995), Generation Z (born between 1996-2015), that is, a relation to the generation as a simplification of the human being hand in hand with technology in terms of social skills (Lopez, 2017).
The author emphasizes that the term of generations, i.e., its classification mentioned above has emerged in the United States by authors William Satrauss and Neil Howe in order to understand the behaviors of people and their environment. However, the classifications are not entirely accurate due to the changes experienced, these may vary according to the culture of a given country.
In this perspective, currently in the university educational environment, the majority of teachers belong to the "Baby Boomers" generations, which means that they were born in the years (1949-1968). Likewise, there are teachers belonging to the "X" generations who were born in the year (1969-19769) as well as those belonging to the "Millennials" generations that cover the years (1980-1994), having as university students in great percentage integrating the "Centennials" generation, considered as the young people who interact with information technologies and who were born between the years (1995-2009). In this sense, generations inhabit in each culture where different events have occurred in totally different scenarios, living a process of metamorphosis. "In the case of social systems, the possibilities of metamorphosis appear when the organism is exhausted, but not so the creative capacities of human beings" (Luengo, 2020, p. 15). It is urgent to rethink and reflect on the environment in which we live in relation to generational events, since each generation responds differently to the same situation within the teaching-learning process.
According to the compilation made, there are notable differences between immigrants and digital natives; undoubtedly this generational gap has occurred in the changes of lifestyles, forms of communication of the teaching-learning process, which of course, will vary because we live a transformation of the environment immersed in the society of digital culture, for this reason, neurodidactic strategies should be promoted understanding the diversity that will help in interpersonal relationships and the integration of future new generations.
Consequently, education currently undergoes frequent daily changes influenced by alternate levels of reality, which are reflected in the environment where ICT's contribute provoking continuous transformations assuming new challenges in the forms of communication. In any process there are obstacles that can make understanding impossible, in which it is essential to grasp the global and the individual to generate feedback in different generational cultural environments.
Neurodidactics for the strengthening of education should be complemented with the integration and balance of the different generations; creating experiences based on holistic foundations accompanied by activities that generate motivation, according to the needs of future professional students with emotional intelligence competencies.
The brain learns through stimuli and experiences generated by the environment, consequently, people are social beings as well as emotional where it is necessary for teachers to involve reflection activities, complex, novel, capturing the interest. The neurosciences study from the functionality, structure, molecular bases on the forms of communication, these interactions determine the behavior of people in relation to learning processes, among the functions is related to the study of neurons in cognition, memory, motivation and emotion that is contemplated aspects of human learning.
In the words of the authors Rodriguez, Hunt, & Barrientos consider that there is a high probability that the brain of natives is physiologically different from that of immigrants, as a result of the digital stimuli they have received throughout their growth. And finally, he states that learning through digital games is a novel didactic formula as useful, because it allows interacting and communicating positively with digital natives thanks to the use of a common language that corresponds to the native language (Rodríguez, Hunt, & Barrientos, 2018).
The current educator must face these processes and pertinent changes covering the demands and needs of education and society. In this scenario, it is required the accompaniment of the knowledge of the brain of the viewer to capture the interest with didactics allowing the interaction of a micro and macro analysis of the environment understanding the unity and diversity of the postulates of neuroscience where this can be integrated with different disciplines for continuous improvement. In the words of Mora: "Neurosciences have shown that positive emotions facilitate memory and learning as they help maintain curiosity and motivation, transcendental conditions for effective and lasting learning" (Mora, 2017).
The approach to emotional intelligence is due to the fact that a teaching transformation is needed where it understands in an integrative way and a holistic perspective; the part that corresponds to each of the generations of students as well as teachers expressed at an internal and external level from different cultural, labor and education scenarios that operates the teaching-learning process with a reciprocal knowledge of uncertainties.
Emotional intelligence plays a fundamental role in both students and teachers, it is considered that the best places for life learning are school, university and home. In this scenario, the integration of neurodidactics is required, achieving in this sense a learning by experiences, encouraging them to participate with emotional intelligence from a personal and social dimension; applying the components proposed by the author Goleman connecting with activities that will be directed to the generations of students.
Figure 3. Integration of neurodidactics and generational emotional intelligence
Responding to the dimension of self-awareness and self-regulation of emotions, according to the bibliographic study these first dimensions are determined with an intrapersonal character that induces to know oneself, making an analysis and reflection in different environments in which one develops in the work, family and educational environment. The dimensions of social awareness and social skills are considered as interpersonal skills that need to be worked within the educational context because they address the ability to lead one's own emotions and those of others. When these competencies are achieved, positive results are seen generating, in this way, a motivational climate without exclusion of the different generations accompanied by neurodidactics in the teaching-learning process.
Today we are going through a process of transformation and teachers are needed to create an environment of awareness in education in an integral way, in which reflection and action go hand in hand. In the words of Bogado de Scheid & Fedoruk, it is currently appropriate to consider the relationship between the University and Society, because in this way it can be evidenced that the University has a social function, which influences and transforms its environment, that is, it is a real factor of social transformation, and therefore, depending on the purpose proposed, it will help to build a society with certain characteristics (Bogado de Scheid & Fedoruk, 2013).
Strategies in universities are instruments used by the teacher to contribute to a better implementation for the development of students' competencies. In this perspective, it is essential that the teacher aims to implement integrative tools of innovation in the university community, contributing to the strengthening of the teaching-learning process by integrating neurodidactics and emotional intelligence.
The approach of emotional intelligence emphasizes personal and social aspects directed to the dimensions proposed by the author Daniel Goleman that involve self-awareness, self-regulation, social awareness and social ability where they can be applied in an educational, family and work environment to harmonize the relationship with my inner self and the environment; allowing interpersonal and intrapersonal understanding and interaction. At this point, emotional intelligence is complemented with neurodidactics, integrating channels and supports with valuable content for teaching.The brain learns through stimuli and experiences, since it is a social being as well as an emotional being, for this reason, Universities should involve activities accompanied by the proposed components within the teaching-learning process; understanding the transformation of this new reality that has fostered the process of global interconnection assuming a fundamental role in society achieving as a result a more enriching space accompanied by the dialogue of knowledge.
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