Vol. 6 No. 2 (2023): July-December [Edit closure: 31/07/2023]
Suggested quote (APA, seventh edition)
Macurí Silva, E. C. (2023). STEAM education in the Bachelor's Degree in Physical Sciences. Delectus, 6(2), 35-45. https://doi.org/10.36996/delectus.v6i2.197
This scientific article deals with the influence of STEAM education in the physical sciences degree. To achieve this purpose, the methodology chosen was the research in narrative collection that corresponds to the qualitative approach. Taking into account a review of 10 articles belonging to universities, doctoral theses, scientific articles in Spanish, English and Portuguese. The search engines of academic rigor were used in order to analyze the literary production with the support in the database in Spanish, English and Portuguese. STEAM education has gained prominence in education as well as in the physical sciences.
Keywords: STEAM education; physical sciences; vocational choice; university students; undergraduate physical sciences; higher education.
The evolution of teaching in higher education in recent years, the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have not been aliened to the field of physics. Because of this, STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Art and Mathematics) education we can go back thirty years incorporating the various disciplines as an objective to optimize educational competencies (De Souza & Montenegro, 2022).
So, we can quote Greca & Meneses (2018) ''STEAM education is a model aimed at promoting and improving in an integrated way the study of the disciplines to which its acronym refers''. That is why, the STEAM approach consolidates these disciplines, giving them the necessary importance for the arbitration of problems in real life (Vizcarra, 2022). For this, it is necessary to emphasize that scientific research should not be alien in students of scientific careers, but for all careers in general; although the necessary importance should be given to scientific literacy at the level of the entire population in favor of technological development in the country (OAS, 2018).
On the other hand, Juvera & López (2021), points out that in Mexico it is not developing equal opportunities to women, in the STEAM model, so it is in the stage of recognition of its benefits and future applications. As for Rodriguez et al. (2021), the participation of students is important to consolidate the knowledge of the transversal axes in the curricular redesigns, so they have emphasis on problem solving. Since, the bibliographic research of the STEAM approach for university education, databases of recognized journals were used, whose time span was centered at the end of 2020 and the first two months of 2021. The key words of the research were related to technological tools, STEAM, higher education, cognitive and interactive skills. In the bibliographic methodology of qualitative approach, the following steps were taken into account: Referring the variables in context, discerning the information for effective utilization, synthesizing the information, concluding with the search that was useful for the research; from this, less than 40 articles were selected for discernment. As it is known the update of the APA 7th edition standards are relevant for the cited of this research, using Mendeley. Through this study, articles were selected mostly in English language. In the discussions, it encompasses that teachers are involved in the development of STEAM education, through learning by justifying in problem solving. In this approach it can be taken into account that the consolidation of knowledge, with the proper motivation of students to have an active participation, so the STEAM approach takes preponderance because the pedagogical approach is given as satisfactory results. In this model, teacher participation is involved as the implication of curricular plans for the benefit of the development of techniques and instruments of the STEAM model.
Continuing with the idea, Felix & Aldana (2022), in the context of acquiring knowledge for developments in technology with appropriate conditions for learning. STEAM methodology encompasses in all areas for a comprehensive development and scientific inclination for science. In the 15-year study, 7,000 people were reached during the various science workshops. In the starting year, 2006, of which we have the disinterest in the physical sciences. Therefore, the low performance is where students are discouraged as a cause of not innovating in science classes, which leads to student desertion. At the University of Guanajuato-Mexico, in the International Laboratory of Elementary Particles directed by Dr. Julian Felix established the STEAM methodology, which supports the incentive in young people and the general public, which allows to promote the incentive of scientific vocation. The point of development is to encourage that in a course of Electromagnetism that was developed in which addresses learning, which leads students to take advantage of their knowledge. As a result, the students have better conditions to find better job opportunities. So it came to reach the majority of students who are adolescents and young people, which could be achieved with the objective of learning.
As for De Souza & Montenegro (2022), they contextualize us in the development of aerospace technology of relevance, but in the country of Brazil it is not being recognized as such. The research work developed by the authors, was a three-year follow-up to high school students, whose objective was to integrate STEAM and Maker methodology to develop space exploration. In this educational program, the development of nanosatellite projects was carried out in order to participate in technological competitions. In this way, space exploration is important because it brings with it scientific inquiry and technological development, thus benefiting society with the development of their skills. All this brings with it the motivation for the inclination to study science through concrete scientific technological projects.
This is how Suarez & Carmona (2020), develop their research in Colombia, developed by way of scientific dissemination Maker camps that inserted through STEAM education, making a preamble to the development of artifacts, engineering design and under the development of scientific knowledge. Thus, it was possible to integrate these experiences in basic education, promoting inquiry in the field of engineering, which is often distant for school students. Achieving the objective of linking engineering for the development of STEAM education, generating positive attitudes towards the field of science and technology. In this way OEA (2018), when students acquire security, it is important to highlight that they become independent to acquire knowledge and even more so develops it in the STEAM approach, thus motivating the acquisition of their knowledge. Therefore, it is where complexity can be developed in situations increasingly involving advanced knowledge.
Regarding the present research, the narrative review methodology was chosen in order to distinguish the various researches compiled on STEAM education and its contributions as an incentive in the physics degree. That is why the key concepts of this article should be placed.
Vizcarra (2022) defines that STEAM lies in different areas such as: Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics and Art and among them are not isolated and thus can be integrated interdisciplinary, for contextualized and meaningful learning; thus preparing people prepared for the challenges of demand in the world of work.
Due to the rapid transformation in technology, Martínez Zamudio et al. (2021), reason that in the different areas of knowledge there are skills and abilities that human beings are exposed to daily, which is why STEAM education breaks with the traditional schemes of education and it is inferred that this is a new alternative to evolve pedagogical didactics, taking into account the learning context, technological tools, methodology and it is important to integrate them. Thus, interdisciplinarity is a dynamic event for STEAM education, so that each area contributes its essence and this leads to encompass the different fields of science, technology, engineering, art and music. Also, Ahn & Choi (2015), as the main objective of STEAM education, is that the skills of students in the 21st century, are essential for the development of scientific and intellectual progress that leads to technological development and it is due to the integration of the same for students to carry with the objectives of the curricula of scientific careers.
De Souza & Montenegro (2022), highlights us the following approaches to STEAM Education:
In addition, Castro-Campos (2022), argues that STEAM education needs several disciplines, making connections that make the interaction between the different areas connected. Santillán at al. (2020), affirms that STEAM education is comprehensive due to its literacy, constructivist, holistic and modern theories. Continuing with the idea of Castro-Campos (2022) expands the mentioned approaches as follows:
Finally, OEA (2018), predominates that STEAM education, is necessary for literacy and development in critical thinking. With the teacher's intervention in teaching methods and research make it possible for students to better receive knowledge. For an improvement in the transfer of knowledge, feedback between the two is necessary, such as questions and discussions. That is why critical thinking arises from feedback, thus aiding constructivist learning. Student discussions are important for self-criticism and future decision making. Teachers have the role of being absolutists in knowledge, on the contrary, they are questioners in the transfer of knowledge. As a result of the roles between teachers and students, learning becomes active and engaged and in turn complementary. It is where inquiry links the common goals between students and teachers with the faculty to have different strategies that lead to new knowledge. Consequently, it is that the strategies lead to scientific skills with the requirements of having scientific knowledge, scientific construction and scientific attitude. With this, the STEAM areas, particularize self-criticism and systematized supervision at home process in order to evaluate the final product. Therefore, what is the origin of everything is the inquiry that leads to the development of scientific skills and helps us to understand STEAM education much better.
Relationship between science and STEAM education
Within the methodology of the nature of science, Ferreira & Custódio (2021), argues that the theory and methodology is important the identification of this relationship that can guide studies, which can be expanded, in some cases more traditional that are inserted in science classes and this relationship remains in the last ten years. That is why, in teaching in physics, Setlik & da Silva (2021), helps to consolidate thoughts, so in his research scientific concepts, of nature for the construction of knowledge can highlight the relationship of potentials for the development of science.
In the research OAS (2018), emphasizes that teachings in science and STEAM education is important to make them productive, with which gives a more participatory approach to the student, since the teacher as a facilitator of information gives the necessary guidelines to the student for their own learning is where it compares with traditional education. Therefore, the EducaSTEAM network, gives the opportunity for the integration of this knowledge to educational organizations. Part of it the relationship between physics and methodologies is important to quote Zuñeda (2021), who tells us about the experimental activities, which can be mentioned:
These points are further developed in Figure 1 (adapted as a concept map).
Figure 1. Experimental Activities in Physics Learning. Adapted from Zuñeda (2021).
The literature review allows us to have a systematization and conclusion about the publications on a certain topic. Therefore, it aims to define, summarize, recognize methodologies and seek the contributions of the research topic (Baker, 2016).
In this, Okoli & Schabram (2010), point out that for a systematic review, the following steps must be taken: to be clear about the determination of the review, method and study, literature research, debugging of results, validation of quality, data provenance, writing of the review and extraction of studies.
The interval from the year 2019 was selected, due to the production and interaction of teachers and students that has been minimal due to the pandemic of COVID 19; therefore, the dynamics of the research production of the relationship of STEAM education and physical sciences will be analyzed.
Consequently, in the information research of articles was based on the academic Google with searches between English with the keywords as "STEAM with physis" (English), "licenciatura em física e STEAM" (Portuguese) and "STEAM and physical sciences"; which allowed finding articles, thesis for the elaboration of this article from the year 2019.
In another part, the search was performed in Redalyc, applying filters in the languages of Spanish, English and Portuguese, from the year 2019, with the disciplines of education, Multidisciplinary (Natural and Exact Sciences), Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics. The highest production was found in Mexico with 129 related articles and in second place in Brazil with 86 publications.
Finally, in the data search in Scielo, applying the intervals of years from 2019 to 2022, of the three languages English, Spanish and Portuguese by thematic area science and education, 3 articles were found in the search for similarity of the article being presented.
The data obtained in the search engines must be filtered, so the articles were downloaded to analyze them thoroughly. This method is supported by Rother (2007), who states that the classification of physical or virtual bibliographic information, so the conclusion of other authors through reliable sources is necessary to determine the objective of the research.
Likewise, Guirao-Goris et al. (2008), when making the appropriate search of terms in search engines there are different modalities such as finding the author as a keyword, verbs that are in infinitive and in their different grammatical accidents; if there are two keywords they can be searched separately. At the same time, he points out that the words must be written without spelling mistakes, taking into account the chronology that the articles will appear from those of the present year to the oldest ones. For this reason, it is necessary to take into account the files, where the collected information must be stored, so that the amount of information becomes large for review. The search is where it should be more exhaustive and thus be able to refine the information that corresponds to our question in the research article, which highlights the quality in the methodology with due scientific rigor.
When filtering the data, a series of articles had to be downloaded, which we are going to show in the following table N°1, categorized as follows:Table 1
|Hoseyni et al.||2019||Quantitative||English|
|Bravo-Mosquera et al.||2019||Quantitative||English|
|Andreotti & Frans||2019||Qualitative-Descriptive||English|
|Espinosa Torres et al.||2020||Qualitative||Spanish|
|Coelho & Góes||2020||Qualitative||Portuguese|
|Mascaretti et al.||2021||Quantitative||English|
|Fernández et al.||2021||Qualitative-Descriptive||Spanish|
|Pisco et al.||2021||Quantitative||Spanish|
|Segura & Félix||2022||Qualitative-Descriptive||Spanish|
Figure 1. Percentage of number of articles from 2019-2022
Figure 1 shows that the majority of production was found in 2021, occupying the first place, while the last place is in 2022 with 10%.
Figure 2. Percentage of number of articles according to their approaches
In second place, we have according to the methodology used, presenting in majority the qualitative approach with 60% while the quantitative approach has 40%. In third place in Table 1, we analyzed that most of the information was found in Spanish and in last place was Portuguese.
We can bring up Zuñeda (2021), that experiential learning is important and through proper dissemination and continuous monitoring. Therefore, learning in science will be achieved in an integrative way. Technology should be the great tool for the development of teachers' classes; even more so in the environment of the pandemic by COVID 19 and with the support of simulations in the physics career.
Therefore, Andreotti & Frans (2019), in their research work of the connection between music and physics gives us the importance of STEAM education, and it is where the learning acquired is remarkable and interesting when applying them in real life. It is a motivation, since the theory is translated into practice to be able to relate them to other disciplines. It is important that the teacher develops feedback and thus compiles the progress in their sessions.
It should be emphasized that the inclusion of STEAM education can be a great incentive for students of physical sciences, as well as for students of various disciplines from engineering to music. The relevance of this approach will allow for multidirectional career development.
In the search for information we found that physics is often confused with physical education, of which we see that the Spanish language is misrepresented in the main meaning which is the career of physics. For this reason, we have not found many articles that are focused on the central theme of this research article as we expected to find in the Spanish language.
On the other hand, Andreotti & Frans (2019), show that when integrating approaches there is a risk in losing the essence of each discipline, with which interdisciplinarity converges to explore the fields in different disciplines. The integration of STEAM education makes it possible with different histories to unite and thus be able to solve problems that may arise.
That is why, currently Vizcarra (2022), notes that digital tools are entering together with STEAM education. So, STEAM education has many benefits from easy activities to solve problems. So a criticism is made to the current education, because they are not forming students who reach the criterion of their acquired knowledge, so that the inquiry collaborates with fractioning the gaps of interest in the choice of basic science career in general and the invention of scientific understanding.
Therefore, we can conclude with Celaschi et al. (2013), in relation to STEAM approaches it is necessary to distinguish them in:
Thus, it shows the background of the diverse relationships that exist in the sciences and the approach established by STEAM education.
For Latin American countries, the country that was found with the highest production of the objective of this article has been in Colombia, indirectly, there is a remarkable inculcation to students about science, citing Bravo-Mosquera et al. (2021), that science camps were conducted in order to encourage scientific inquiry of holistic character, as it points out, that it is important to take in reference the science seedbed and replicate the initiative.
It is important to take into account about the production in the years, we see that there is a greater amount in the year 2021 with respect to the physics and related careers. According to the approaches, there have been more review researches, yielding that the qualitative methodology has preponderance. In this way, the collection of information has been very thorough to discern what has been shown in the academic search engines.
In the search for information, no research related to the present article was registered in quantity, so it should be taken into account that the development of it, Fernandez et al. (2021), emphasizes that it is of utmost importance that this knowledge expands and can be replicated at the school level.
Indeed, Ferreyra (2018), is based on statistical data from the faculty of physical sciences at the San Marcos National University, that there are fewer and fewer students who remain in the career, to this can also be brought to mention the factors that involve the desertion.
In general terms, this article serves as a contribution to the teachers in the different public and private universities to make the vocation for the physics career more fascinating with the proper training and investment. Of which, for further information, the review of the respective articles are embodied in the bibliographical references in order to be able to replicate them in universities or perhaps some educational institute.
Limitations: The main limitation of the research was the English language since it is more complex in some paragraphs to understand, so we resorted to some free access platforms for the translation of the same. It should also be noted that the Spanish language was not sufficient to find the bibliography of interest, which is why we resorted to English and Portuguese to be able to deepen the present study.
Contribution to scientific knowledge: The present article is part of the investigation in the educational or micro social, since, it is participant to give the suggestions to improve inside the pedagogies in the degree in physics. And it is so, that in the vanguard of the technology and the new tendencies of the approaches applied in the higher education are seen adhered to implement them. So, the contribution of this article is to analyze the dynamics of the production of STEAM approach articles, considering both qualitative and quantitative approaches. From the educational perspective, it is necessary to involve teachers and students more in the projects for research purposes.
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Conflicts of interest: The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
Macurí Silva, E C: Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Methodology, Research, Supervision, Writing - original draft, Writing: revising and editing.
Informed consent: Not applicable
Data availability statement: Not applicable